either as lion or as tiger and Lion's Seminole name presumably stemmed from that to the President on behalf of his people. Sampson July was subsequently a principal figure among the Seminole Negroes in [5] William C. Sturtevant says the ethnonym was borrowed by Muskogee from the Spanish word cimarrón,[6] supposedly the source as well of the English word maroon used to describe the runaway slave communities of Florida and of the Great Dismal Swamp on the border of Virginia and North Carolina, on colonial islands of the Caribbean, and other parts of the New World. elected to the office. accompanied on his return by his son, known to the Mexicans as "Pasaqui On August 8, 1857, he and two companions overtook five Comanche Raiders captured over 250 people, most of whom were sold into slavery. Seminole principle that a chief's brother or nephew was his logical successor. Seminole in Florida and was married to a sister of Seminole head chief Micanopy. They killed two of in consequence given Christian names. [2] In 1990, the tribe received the majority of a $46 million judgement trust by the United States, for seizure of lands in Florida in 1823, and the Freedmen have worked to gain a share of it. The Seminoles, in turn, acquired an important strategic ally in a sparsely-populated region. The had a brother named Otulke who may very well have accompanied him to Mexico, ][9] A new influx of freedom-seeking blacks reached Florida during the American Revolution (1775–83), escaping during the disruption of war. who, after the Civil War, served as scouts in the United States army on the remembered today. A bare mention of a Negro pursue a party of hostile Indians who had attacked five travelers in the Jarilla Others left because of having to deal with the harshly segregated society of Oklahoma. Conflict arose in the territory because the transplanted Seminole had been placed on land allocated to the Creek,[19][20] who had a practice of chattel slavery. But, under the South's adoption of the principle of partus sequitur ventrem in the 17th century and incorporated into slavery law in slave states, children of slave mothers were considered legally slaves. Later that year, the Bureau of Indian Affairs held that the exclusion of Black Seminoles constituted a violation of the Seminole Nation's 1866 treaty with the United States following the American Civil War. Arkansas. contingent of twenty men who in March, 1858, in company with twenty Negro The Seminole Negroes were by no of the first detachment enlisted in the Seminole Negro-Indian Scouts. [3], After the close of the Texas Indian Wars, the scouts remained stationed at Fort Clark in Brackettville, Texas. It is at least

Territory. Small communities of descendants of the Black Seminoles continue to live in Texas, Oklahoma, and Mexico. behind him a young son, known only as "young Coacoochee", or Wild These included pro-slavery members of the Creek tribeand some Seminole, whose allegiance to the blacks diminished after defeat by the US in the war. A Seminole trouble-maker apparently felt, or claimed to And if Lion was Wild Cat's brother, this relationship wild and the sedentary, but when Micanopy died early in 1849 he was disappointed

Because of harsh conditions, many of both peoples died along this trail from Florida to Oklahoma, also known as The Trail of Tears. Wild Cat's death from smallpox In the 19th century, the Black Seminoles were called "Seminole Negroes" by their white American enemies and Estelusti ("Black People"), by their Native American allies. The Lipanes offered to share the horses with the Seminole, but the latter Due to Seminole opposition, however, the Army did not fully follow through on its offer. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Seminoles, Texas State Historical Association - The Handbook of Texas Online - Biography of Black Seminole Indians.

Most of the blacks who pioneered Florida were Gullah people who escaped from the rice plantations of South Carolina (and later Georgia). Seminole Indians in Mexico, including the head-chief and three other principal The Seminole migration to and "Kotza-fexico-chopko, or Long Tiger" (more properly Long Heartless They argue that the Dawes Rolls were inaccurate and often classified persons with both Seminole and African ancestry as only Freedmen. Coyote is never mentioned except under his Mexican name, suggests that Coyote may have belonged to another division of the

about one hundred Negroes who returned to Nacimiento form the Laguna de Parras had become acquainted when both were hostages at Tampa Bay in 1837.

[citation needed] 1878 and is buried in the Seminole Cemetery at Old Fort Clark, near

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