[7] Their eternal mortal enemies are the Garudas, the legendary semidivine birdlike-deities.[8]. She asked Heracles what she should do with his sons: "shall I keep them here (since I am queen of this country), or shall I send them away to you?"

A possibly related creature to the Hesiodic Echidna is the "Viper" (Echidna) cast into an abyss, by Philip the Apostle, in the apocryphal Acts of Philip.

Here are some of the mythical half-human, half-animal creatures from stories told in past ages. The naga association was most clearly articulated during and immediately after the reign of Anouvong.
They are generally being represented as a class of superhumans taking the form of serpents who inhabit a subterranean world.

Sandro Botticelli (Italian, 1444/45-1510). Moreover, nagas are sometimes linked to medicine. In a wayang theater story, a snake (naga) god named Sanghyang Anantaboga or Antaboga is a guardian deity in the bowels of the earth. During this period, naga serpents were depicted as giant cobras supporting the waterspout of yoni-lingam. This, combined with the fact that the plant has hallucinogenic properties, lead to the mandrake's entry into human folklore.

The oracle ranges from 1 nak hai nam (1 naga granted water); meaning the abundant rainfall should be observed that year, to maximum 7 nak hai nam (7 nagas granted water); meaning there might not be adequate rainfall that year. Circa 500 BCE, An archaic metope from one of the Temples of Selinus. Mumbai: Project for Indian Cultural Studies. For an extensive discussion see Lane Fox, especially pp. [42] The fourth-century BC historian Callisthenes, located the Arimoi and the Arima mountains in Cilicia, near the Calycadnus river, the Corycian cave and the Sarpedon promontory. Some say this tale appears to reinforce the viewpoint prevalent in Mahayana scriptures that a male body is required for Buddhahood, even if a being is so advanced in realization that they can magically transform their body at will and demonstrate the emptiness of the physical form itself. [3], Echidna's family tree varies by author.

[31], In northern Thailand, the Singhanavati Kingdom had a strong connection with nāgas.

[43] The b scholia to Iliad 2.783, preserving a possible Orphic tradition, has Typhon born "under Arimon in Cilicia",[44] and Nonnus mentions Typhon's "bloodstained cave of Arima" in Cilicia. Perseus, the son of Zeus and Danae from Greek mythology is beheading the Gorgon Medusa. For an overview of snake images in Ganesha iconography, see: Martin-Dubost, Paul (1997). [3] They are common and hold cultural significance in the mythological traditions of many South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures.

[citation needed]. Even today, a woman may be known behind her back as a harpy if others find her annoying, and an alternative verb for "nag" is "harp.".

It is still practiced nowadays, most notably during the Royal Ploughing Ceremony. [9], Hesiod's Echidna was half beautiful maiden and half fearsome snake. [30], Due to the strong relation with everything water, nāgas in Thai belief also plays a role in rain control. Christopher Columbus swore that he saw real-life mermaids on his voyage to the new world, but then, he'd been at sea for quite a while. The Mandrake is a rare instance in which a hybrid creature is a blend of a plant and human.

Hesiod described "the goddess fierce Echidna" as a flesh eating "monster, irresistible", who was like neither "mortal men" nor "the undying gods", but was "half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin", who "dies not nor grows old all her days. [47], For some Arima was instead located in a volcanic plain, on the upper Gediz River, called the Catacecaumene ("Burnt Land"), situated between the ancient kingdoms of Lydia, Mysia and Phrygia, near Mount Tmolus (modern Bozdağ) and Sardis, the ancient capital of Lydia.

Hesiod (though he does not name it Ladon) gives the dragon's parents as Ceto and Phorcys. The sphinx is a creature with the head of a human and the body and haunches of a lion and sometimes the wings of an eagle and tail of a snake. Depending on legend versions, her predecessor Sri Pahang or her son left the lake and later fought a naga called Sri Kemboja. Like the naga legends there, there are stories about an ancient empire in lake Chini, although the stories are not linked to the naga legends. N.S. As in Hinduism, the Buddhist nāga generally has the form of a great cobra, usually with a single head but sometimes with many.


[59], From the fifth century BC historian Herodotus, we learn of a creature who, though Herodotus does not name as Echidna, is called an echidna ("she-viper") and resembles the Hesiodic Echidna in several respects.

In ancient Greek stories, the siren was a creature with the head and upper body of a human woman and the legs and tail of a bird.


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