This accumulated snow and eyes eventually forms into glaciers, bodies of ice that flow under the influence of their own gravity. Related: What's the Speed of Earth Around the Sun? [208] Places close to oceans typically have colder summers and warmer winters, due to the fact that oceans can the store large amounts of heat.
Earth orbits around the Sun in about 365.25 days. Tropical regions receive more energy from the Sun than polar regions, which is redistributed by atmospheric and ocean circulation.
[169][170] The natural satellites of other planets are also referred to as "moons", after Earth's. [155][156], Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 150 million km (93 million mi) every 365.2564 mean solar days, or one sidereal year. The remaining 29.2%, or 148.94 million km2 (57.51 million sq mi), not covered by water has terrain that varies greatly from place to place and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms. This causes a slow but steady loss of the atmosphere into space. 1. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest and most massive of the four rocky planets. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, and then the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. At higher latitudes, the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles, and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. Space is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. [161] Above the Arctic Circle and below the Antarctic Circle there is no daylight at all for part of the year, causing a polar night, and this night extends for several months at the poles themselves. NY 10036. [156] This allows total and annular solar eclipses to occur on Earth. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name (e.g. [252] These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. [115][116], The mean heat loss from Earth is 87 mW m−2, for a global heat loss of 4.42×1013 W.[117] A portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by mantle plumes, a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. [88] Due to the increased luminosity, Earth's mean tempearture may reach 100 °C (212 °F) in 1.5 billion years, and all ocean water will evaporate and be lost to space within an estimated 1.6 to 3 billion years. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane, producing seasons on Earth. Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/universetoday

New York, Precipitation patterns vary widely, ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. The quantities given are the values at the instant J2000.0 of the secular variation, ignoring all periodic variations. [212], The commonly used Köppen climate classification system has five broad groups (humid tropics, arid, humid middle latitudes, continental and cold polar), which are further divided into more specific subtypes. Over the next 1.1 billion years, solar luminosity will increase by 10%, and over the next 3.5 billion years by 40%. (Table 8o-1)", "The IAU 2009 system of astronomical constants: The report of the IAU working group on numerical standards for Fundamental Astronomy", "Global average temperature may hit record level in 2010", "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Recent Global, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved", "Ag Isotopic Evolution of the Mantle During Accretion: New Constraints from Pd and Ag Metal-Silicate Partitioning", "Constraining the Evolutionary History of the Moon and the Inner Solar System: A Case for New Returned Lunar Samples", "Controversial Moon Origin Theory Rewrites History", "On the origin and composition of Theia: Constraints from new models of the Giant Impact", "Earth's water may have been inherited from material similar to enstatite chondrite meteorites", "Oldest measurement of Earth's magnetic field reveals battle between Sun and Earth for our atmosphere", "Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga", "Early formation and long-term stability of continents resulting from decompression melting in a convecting mantle", "Rates of generation and destruction of the continental crust: implications for continental growth", "Secular Trends in the Geologic Record and the Supercontinent Cycle", "When and how did the ice age end? That distinction belongs to Mount Chimaborazo in the Andes Mountains in Ecuador, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). [76][77] Following the Cambrian explosion, 535 Ma, there have been at least five major mass extinctions and many minor ones. [259] The standard astronomical symbol of Earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle, ,[260] representing the four corners of the world. [114] Because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists postulate that early in Earth's history, before isotopes with short half-lives were depleted, Earth's heat production was much higher. Science is light years ahead of where it was just 50 years ago.

[78][79] Apart from the proposed current Holocene extinction event, the most recent was 66 Ma, when an asteroid impact triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but largely spared small animals such as insects, mammals, lizards and birds. The ozone layer blocks ultraviolet solar radiation, permitting life on land. Local differences in topography, geology, and deeper tectonic structure cause local and broad, regional differences in Earth's gravitational field, known as gravity anomalies. [189], In Earth's coldest regions, snow survives over the summer and eventually changes into ice. Receive mail from us on behalf of our trusted partners or sponsors? Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". Nitrogen accounts for 78% of the gases in the atmosphere and oxygen occupies 21%. Models predict that the Sun will expand to roughly 1 AU (150 million km; 93 million mi), about 250 times its present radius. [247] The farthest that humans have traveled from Earth is 400,171 km (248,655 mi), achieved during the Apollo 13 mission in 1970.

At approximately 750 Ma, one of the earliest known supercontinents, Rodinia, began to break apart. However, from pole-to-pole — the meridional circumference — Earth is only 24,860 miles (40,008 km) around. [148][149], During magnetic storms and substorms, charged particles can be deflected from the outer magnetosphere and especially the magnetotail, directed along field lines into Earth's ionosphere, where atmospheric atoms can be excited and ionized, causing the aurora. [177] Some theorists think that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the Sun and planets to Earth's equatorial bulge, the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable, exhibiting large changes over millions of years, as is the case for Mars, though this is disputed. A half billion years later, the last common ancestor of all current life arose. [152][153], Earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars, called its stellar day by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), is 86,164.0989 seconds of mean solar time (UT1), or 23h 56m 4.0989s.

Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of anaerobic and, later, aerobic organisms. Earth's mass is 6.6 sextillion tons (5.9722 x 1024 kilograms). The orbital speed of Earth averages about 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h; 66,600 mph), which is fast enough to travel a distance equal to Earth's diameter, about 12,742 km (7,918 mi), in seven minutes, and the distance to the Moon, 384,000 km (239,000 mi), in about 3.5 hours. [52] Sufficient water to fill the oceans may have always been on the Earth since the beginning of the planet's formation. [/caption] The size of Earth, like the size of all of the celestial bodies, is measured in a number of parameters including mass, volume, density, … Instead, most of the hydrogen loss comes from the destruction of methane in the upper atmosphere. There are a number of adjectives for the planet Earth.

[108] The thickness of the crust varies from about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) under the oceans to 30–50 km (19–31 mi) for the continents. The total surface area of Earth is about 197 million square miles (510 million square km). [159][n 18] This is the maximum distance at which Earth's gravitational influence is stronger than the more distant Sun and planets. The angular size (or solid angle) of these two bodies match because, although the Sun's diameter is about 400 times as large as the Moon's, it is also 400 times more distant. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In addition to an annual component to this motion, there is a 14-month cycle called the Chandler wobble. 3753 Cruithne has a 1:1 orbital resonance with the Earth. [51] Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids, protoplanets, and comets.


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